Most notable for its gorgeous photos, this is very small guide that’s easy to tuck in your daypack. Each plant is accompanied by photographs and line drawings. Especially relevant to the northern Rockies. Nearly a thousand pages on the traditional and indigenous uses of southeastern herbs—medicines, dye and fiber plants, foods, and mystical tools. Naturally more excellent trees books have been published in the intervening years and the list is worth updating. The Man Who Planted Trees and Grew Happiness. The authors label weeds as “troublesome,” so don’t expect a plant-positive experience (but we still think it’s a handy guide)! This field guide features excellent keys, species descriptions, ecological ranges, and color photos. Flavonoid-Rich #hibiscuschutney | Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine, 17 Free Resources for Learning About Herbalism // Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine #herbalife #herbalism #herbalist #herbaleducation #DIY, Growing Medicinal Herbs in Pots:10 Healing Plants for Your Container Garden // Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine #herbgardening #herbalife #herbalism #medicinalherbs #pottedplants, The Medicinal Uses of Pine Needles, Bark, and Resin // Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine #pine #herbalife #herbal #herbalist #herbalmedicine #foraging #winterforaging. A pictorial glossary provides much of the basic information needed to find the plants in question. Along with botanical descriptions and suggestions for collection and preparation, Kane shares medicinal indications, herbal precautions, and dosages. You may use these HTML tags and attributes: Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Features lots of photography and beautiful writing. A guide to four hundred of the most common weeds of the southern United States, featuring range maps, color photos, and handy descriptions of both seedlings and mature plants. Where are you located? Really fabulous foraging and medicinal info by a hard-core foraging/survivalist who is also a top botanist in the northeast (having written our local flora with the New England Wildflower Society). The book is in two parts: Pictorial Keys and Master Pages. One day, however, something surprising happens: a little sister named Willow is born and another baby tree is planted for her. Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie: An Ethnobotanical Guide by Kelly Kindscher. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Easy to use, with simple line drawings and color photos. Juliet Blankespoor's study, including her "top shelf" books. Rather than organizing plants by flower color or family characteristics, as most guidebooks do, botanist Tim Spira takes a holistic, ecological approach and organizes plants on the basis of their natural communities in the wild. -, Field guides and foraging books for the Pacific Northwest and coastal British Columbia. Florida Ethnobotany by Daniel Austin. Uniquely accompanied by a separate illustrated manual, which we recommend as a complementary resource: Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist’s Manual by Noel Holmgren. This book includes a few botanical keys as well as some edible/herbal tidbits, a little ecology, and the etymology of plant names. Read more about my books or click the titles below: Silvology is the biological science of studying forests, incorporating the understanding of natural forest ecosystems, and the effects and development of silvicultural practices. In the way it is setup for identification, it is like the big brother to the fantastic Tree Finder: A Manual for Identification of Trees by their Leaves by May Theilgaard Watts. primarily a temperate forest (though some classifications put parts Features lots of photography and beautiful writing. -, The Southeast's finest botanical field guides. How does a tree get the … Includes notes on toxicity and habitat, but there is no medicinal or edible information. © Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine and, 2011-2020. A gorgeous and trustworthy guide to the mushrooms of coastal California, from Monterey County to the Oregon border. Highly recommended for both novice mushroom hunters and experienced foragers. The book is spiral-bound and quite hefty, so it’s more of a desk reference than an actual field guide. Before you know it, you’ll have the skills and confidence to safely identify and harvest wild plants. The Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine offers online herbal training programs. -. Over thirteen hundred species of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, grasses, ferns, mosses, and lichens are described and illustrated.  2002.  Timber Press.  334pp.  ISBN 0881925500.  A scientific book celebrating all forms of plant life, not only trees, providing a new and original perspective and understanding of plants.  Beautifully written, considering that it is a translation, and well-illustrated throughout.  It provides insightful knowledge that is informative and sometimes humourous.  It will transform the way that you think about and observe plants. This is Mark Turner’s companion guide to Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest. Buy here, Collins Tree Guide.  Owen Johnson & David Moore.  2004.  Harper Collins.   464pp.  ISBN 0007139543.  The tree and shrub identification guide that sets a standard against which all others should be judged.  Illustrated with clear colour drawings, and with a good working key.  If you are interested in identifying British trees in winter you may want to consider the affordable and excellent A guide to the identification of deciduous broad-leaved trees and shrubs in winter produced by the Field Studies Council. Flowering Plant Families of the World by V. H. Heywood. Botany in a Day by Thomas J. Elpel. The guide treats more than three hundred species—every one known to occur in the region—from the Coastal Plain to the highest elevations. Wildflowers of the Eastern Sierra and Adjoining Mojave Desert and Great Basin by Laird Blackwell. Trees and Shrubs of the Pacific Northwest by Mark Turner and Ellen Kuhlmann. You’ll befriend THE most common edible and medicinal wayside plants, including dandelion, stinging nettles, violet, yarrow, burdock, rose, goldenrod, and many others. Filled with beautiful photos, this guide features easy-to-read descriptions of the Northeast’s most common medicinal and edible mushrooms. The silviculture of trees used in British forestry.  Peter Savill.  1991.  CABI Publishing. Please consult your medical care provider before using herbal medicine. Applicable to the central and southern Rockies, filled with beautiful photos, identification tips, folklore, ecology, and occasional references to edible and medicinal uses. • Tree trunk should taper from a solid base, gradually becoming more slender towards the top. Discovering Wild Plants: Alaska, Western Canada, the Northwest by Janice Schofield Eaton. I find them both to be excellent, particularly the medicinal volume. A more detailed field guide should be used as a companion to properly ID plants. Wildflowers of Nevada and Placer Counties by the Redbud Chapter of the California Native Plant Society. Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine Edibility is briefly mentioned where applicable. Excellent for both beginners and pros; features a therapeutic use index and a glossary to explain botanical and medical terminology. Here are a few identification apps that you can use with your smartphones. Incredible Wild Edibles is styled in a similar fashion to Thayer’s other books but covers a completely new selection of herbs, roots, nuts, and berries. Highly recommended. Includes wonderful black-and-white photos and gorgeous drawings throughout. It’s truly important—you might even say a matter of life and death—to make solid choices in this department. Features illustrated keys that can be used in all four seasons. The Boreal Herbal: Wild Food and Medicine Plants of the North by Beverley Gray. This superb field guide covers 147 wild plants, detailing their identification, range, traditional and contemporary uses, and medicinal properties. P. A Thomas.  (2000). -. On the other hand, if a more comprehensive course on DIY herbalism is up your alley, take a peek at our Online Herbal Immersion. Trees and Shrubs of New Mexico, Revised and Expanded by Jack L. Carter. American Canopy: Trees, Forests and the Making of a Nation. Arthur’s works are some of the best I have seen. Unlike many technical keys, however, it features illustrations, and a new chapter on the vegetative history of California is included. The New Sylva was published in 2014, receiving excellent reviews. Tools, field guides, harvesting ethics, and a primer on sustainable wildcrafting are all requisite. It features color photos, nutritional information, and accessible recipes—like seaweed kimchi and kelp chips. Beautifully photographed, the book is small enough to carry in your backpack and is suitable for all experience levels. Includes images of bark, twigs, leaves, reproductive organs as well as distribution maps. Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West: A Guide to Identifying, Preparing, and Using Traditional Medicinal Plants Found in the Deserts and Canyons of the West and Southwest by Michael Moore. Understanding plant families—and how to identify them—is a huge first step for any forager or self-respecting plant nerd. Filled with high-quality color photographs, this is a wonderful reference for those who prefer visual learning. If you’ve ever felt frustrated trying to choose a reliable field guide to take foraging with you, you’re not alone. #treesofinstagram #tree, Nurtured by nature, from cradle to grave #trees #n, On safari in Middle England #lockdown #nature #fox, My beloved companion Bizou has been diagnosed with, Spider,Spider! A companion guide to the Trees of Florida, this book is written to help you identify plants in the field—you won’t find any edible or medicinal information. We highly recommend starting with our article Sustainably Foraging for Wild Edibles and Herbs. Order Now. • Tree should be free from mechanical damage. -. Most plants in the book can be found throughout the temperate world, but others are found only in Southern California and Mediterranean climates. One of the best, pocket-sized tree identification manuals. Occasional, brief references to indigenous uses. Best pictures and ID book I've found. Weeds of the West, Revised Edition published by University of Wyoming with multiple authors. A beautiful guide to Pacific seaweeds. Moore’s entertaining and completely thorough writing discusses identification, range, medicinal use, preparation, and contraindications for each herb. Illustrated and comprehensive, this field guide uses a simple botanical key. Privacy Policy, Christmas discounts end 18 December - visit my Shop for signed paperbacks & more Dismiss, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Top ten gifts for the tree and nature lover | Gabriel Hemery, The Best Books About Trees (Nonfiction & Fiction) - Book ScrollingBook Scrolling, Looking for a unique gift for a nature-loving frie, On the night of the woodcock moon #november #fullm, Sailing through the sea of trees @earth_trust, Congratulations students of @sylvawoodschool - you, Frosty road ahead #treesofinstagram #trees #avenue, Warning slippery when wet! … Applicable to the Carolinas, Georgia, and eastern Tennessee (including Great Smoky Mountains National Park). Richard Louv. Based on the teachings of southern folk herbalist Tommie Bass, this guide is a treasury of old-timey herbal wisdom and little-used local medicinals. The Trees of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide, Second Edition by Gil Nelson. Not exactly a pocket guide, but small enough to accompany you into the field. The course begins with the basic ground rules of foraging safety and ethics, and then moves on to botany and plant identification. — Beta Version, getting better every day. 2005. One of several invaluable guides written by herbalist Michael Moore. This is a truly groundbreaking book, with delectable imagery and recipes that push the edge of even wild cuisine (edible insects, for example). A bit on the technical side for absolute newcomers. Includes detailed descriptions, notes on edibility, and vibrant color photographs. This book includes a few botanical keys as well as some edible/herbal tidbits, a little ecology, and the etymology of plant names. Lovely photos throughout. This is an accessible book for the novice botanist, and features easy-to-read descriptions and color photos, plus notes on range and bloom season. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States by Alan Weakley. Trees of the Southeastern United States by Wilbur Duncan and Marion Duncan. Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide by Lawrence Newcomb. Books Best Sellers & more Top New Releases Deals in Books School Books Textbooks Books Outlet Children's Books Calendars & Diaries Audible Audiobooks 1-16 of over 2,000 results for "tree identification" Make certain of your identification prior to harvesting any plant or mushroom as ingestion, application, or other use of some plants and mushrooms may cause illness or death. This book covers plants ranging from Baja California to Alaska, featuring identification tips, medicinal uses, preparation, and contraindications for each herb—all infused with Moore’s characteristic wit and humor. The book is valuable, too, for the portrait of the infant Anthea Bell, who grew up to become famous as the translator of the Asterix books. More applicable to the eastern portion of the Midwest. A flavorful cookbook and field guide that features hand-drawn illustrations, identification tips, harvesting instructions, and 150 southwestern recipes. Learn how to prep and cook the abundant prickly pear cactus. Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians by Patricia Kyritsi Howell. This book lives up to its name, introducing the most common species and not being thorough in its scope. An easy to-use field guide with detailed line drawings and color photos that features both woody and herbaceous flowering plants. An interesting guide for those who enjoy plant history; includes Native American uses, modern medicinal uses, cultivation, and identification characteristics. This user-friendly field guide features nearly eight hundred species of plants commonly found along the Pacific coast—from Oregon to Alaska—including trees, shrubs, wildflowers, aquatic plants, grasses, ferns, mosses, and lichens. Not as well known as some others but very high quality books. Spellenberg shares brief plant descriptions, comments on ecological roles, and wee mentions on edible uses. Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fungi of Coastal Northern California by Noah Siegel and Christian Schwarz. He specifically emphasizes wild foods and doesn’t discuss medicinal properties; however, his books are valuable field guides for identifying many herbs that straddle the food-medicine divide (elderberry, for example). Browse our library of resources to start foraging on the right foot! An easy-to-use guide with beautiful illustrations and species descriptions. A beautiful and well-researched hardcover book featuring the traditional uses of nearly 540 edible plants. Equally charming. • Tree foliage and branches should be distributed on upper 2/3 of tree. Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West (revised and expanded edition) by Michael Moore. Part plant-identification guide, part food- and medicine-making manual, this book is a treasury of plants that grow throughout the north (and much of the temperate world). Meghan lives in the Ivy Creek watershed, just north of Asheville, North Carolina. Best accompanied by a field guide. Ideal for foragers and cooks of all skill levels. Somewhat heavy, but small enough to tote into the field. Plants of Arizona by Anne Orth Epple. Nature's Garden: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting, and Preparing Edible Wild Plants by Samuel Thayer. Your email address will not be published. This is a technical key best suited to seasoned botanists; IT’S NOT A BEGINNER GUIDE! Florida Wildflowers in Their Natural Communities by Walter Kingsley Taylor. A Guide to Plants of the Northern Chihuahuan Desert by Carolyn Dodson. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Third Edition by Richard Wunderlin and Bruce Hansen. I am often asked to recommend books.  There are so many great books on trees and forestry that it’s difficult to know where to begin.  I’ve tried to create a diverse list that may appeal to many different reader interests.  Inevitably there are many other books that I’ve left off that may otherwise have been in my top ten.  Perhaps you have your own top ten tree and forestry books – feel free to list them in a Comment.  Anyway, here are my top ten – updated September 2016. The Prickly Pear Cookbook by Carolyn Niethammer. In fact, most of our plant profiles contain more detail than you’ll find in any book on wild foods and herbs. I can't find the catnip entry in the darned index! The Smithsonian Guide to Seaside Plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts, from Louisiana to Massachusetts, Exclusive of Lower Peninsular Florida by Wilbur Duncan and Marion Duncan. Best Tree Identification Apps Around . More cookbook than field guide, you’ll find a wealth of wild recipes arranged by foraging season. The Forager's Harvest: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting, and Preparing Edible Wild Plants by Samuel Thayer. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition edited by Bruce Baldwin et al. -, The extensive library at Mountain Gardens in Celo, NC. 416pp. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. A beautiful book for the coffee table or reference library, this hardcover classic is filled with gorgeous, scientifically accurate illustrations and range maps for over five hundred plant families throughout the world. This makes a good companion to a more traditional field identification guide for trees. Cooking the Wild Southwest: Delicious Recipes for Desert Plants by Carolyn Niethammer. Highly recommended. Spin me a seed basket before the wi, A little large-leaved lime leaf lingers, frost-lic, ‘Good morning,’ said Autumn wearily. . -. Black-and-white drawings and range maps accompany each plant. It covers 568 species of woody plants throughout Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and northern California with vivid color photographs, identifying characteristics, and range maps. One of the very best medicinal field guides for the region—highly relevant to New Mexico, Arizona, west Texas, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and California. A lovely little guide brimming with photos, brief ID descriptions, and plenty of interesting comments on ecological role. This is a great book for beginning botanists or visitors exploring the region. 296pp. This is a weighty book and not easy to carry into the field. Best Forest History Book. Crowood Press.  192pp.  ISBN 1861267894.  A practical guide aimed at woodland owners with very clear and straightforward advice.  Highly recommended if you own, or have ambitions of owning, a woodland. We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. An introductory medicinal guide written by a knowledgeable Southern herbalist. Books About Trees for Preschoolers. This is a very technical key tailored to the experienced botanist; NOT recommended for beginners., Thanks! A bit on the technical side for absolute newcomers. Highly recommended for southwestern foragers. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. This is an excellent book for beginners or those new to the region. Required fields are marked *. Juliet and her houseplants share a home with her family and herb books in Asheville, North Carolina. More of a desk reference in size. Thayer shares detailed material on plant identification (accompanied by color photos) and food preparation, along with entertaining anecdotal stories. I wrote this post more than five years ago, and its been one of my most popular ever since. Perfect for the beginner and experienced forager. Lawrence Newcomb's system of wildflower identification is based on natural structural features that are easily visible to the untrained eye, enabling amateurs and experts alike to identify almost any wildflower quickly and accurately. (Note: Thayer does not discuss medicinal uses.). If you can only purchase a book or two to get started, we suggest beginning with his guides. We just ordered it and look forward to reading it. 100 Edible Mushrooms by Michael Kuo. A descriptive guide to the fungi of the Southeast, featuring ID characteristics, color photos, and comments on edibility. A delightful cookbook devoted to one of the most treasured native foods of the Americas. Plus, we’ll share our very favorite culinary and medicinal recipes. Buy here, In praise of plants.  Francis Hallé. The Keys are designed for easy visual comparison of details which look alike, narrowing the identification of a tree to one of a small group — the family or genus. Throughout it all, an owl sits in a hole in the middle of the tree. This is a technical flora (not for beginners; this is VERY technical) of the Southeast available for purchase as a print copy or free PDF from the UNC Herbarium. Wonderful! In good conscience, we simply couldn’t list many popular wild food guides here, mostly because they do not emphasize poisonous look-alikes in their plant descriptions, which could mean fatal consequences for foragers using those books. (Note: Thayer does not discuss medicinal uses. Florida’s Edible Wild Plants: A Guide to Collecting and Cooking by Peggy Sias Lantz. – Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine and with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. Click on “identify” and then select the image that looks most like the plant you are trying to identify. Trees of Western North America: Princeton Field Guides by Richard Spellenberg, Christopher Earle, and Gil Nelson. Arno includes writings about the traditional uses of trees, ecology, as well as detailed descriptions, inviting the reader to slow down and take in each tree deeply. Fantastic tree ID book. That said, this book is truly pocket-sized and therefore leaves a lot of trees and shrubs out. Geared toward amateur botanists. The Royal Society, London.  Widely viewed as the first book on forestry.  It was commissioned initially as a report by the Royal Society in 1662, when there was real concern that supplies of timber for the Royal Navy were dwindling.  There were four editions published in Evelyn’s lifetime, and many more posthumously.  The text is a wonderful celebration of the silvan world with reports of meetings with knowledgable tree people across Europe, anecdotal reports, contemporary scientific knowledge, and practical advice – all intermingled with a richly descriptive text.  Old editions appear fairly regularly for auction but can sell for several thousand pounds.  A free download of the text is available from Project Guttenberg or, if you’re a Kindle user, for free from Amazon. JULIET BLANKESPOOR founded the Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine in 2007 and serves as the school’s primary instructor and Creative Director. Wildwood: a journey through trees.  Roger Deakin. Equally essential and recommended. A companion guide to the Trees of Florida, this book is written to help you identify plants in the field—you won’t find any edible or medicinal information. Thanks for these suggestions, we will definitely check them out . Pocket-sized. This book was developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service as an aid in identifying trees and shrubs and to aid in their use for conservation purposes. Roger Deakin died in 2006.  Read more. Trees of Eastern North America (A Princeton Field Guide) by Gil Nelson, Christopher Earle, and Richard Spellenberg. And if all this merely whets your appetite, come join us for our Online Foraging Course: Edible and Medicinal Wild Herbs (registration is currently open and will close in April 2021). Engaging to read, Kuo’s book features a hundred of the most common edible mushrooms and includes color photos, edibility ratings, descriptions, poisonous relatives and look-alikes, and a recipe section in the back of the book. -, Our favorite field guides and foraging books for the northeastern U.S. and adjacent Canadian regions. This tutorial has helped more budding botanists, herbalists, and foragers than any other identification guide I know! Great Collection. Perfect for all skill levels. These days, she channels her botanical obsession with her writing and photography in her online programs and here on her personal blog, Castanea. (2010 recent edition). Sierra Nevada Wildflowers: Including Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon National Parks by Karen Wiese. 8. This list of trees was compiled from the following sources: Monograph 9, Economic Botany of Alabama, Part 2 (1928) by Roland M. Harper; Forest Trees of Alabama Excellent reading for beginners, experienced foragers, and anyone who loves herbs. Sylva: Or, a Discourse of Forest-Trees, and the Propagation of Timber in his Majesty’s Dominions. Common leaf identification shapes include ovate (egg shaped), lanceolate (long and narrow), deltoid (triangular), obicular (round) and cordate (heart shaped). Sonoran Desert Wildflowers by Richard Spellenberg. An easy-to-use pocket guide for identifying regional flowers and shrubs. A Tree is a Plant | Did you know that a tree is the biggest plant that grows? To identify trees not listed in this book, collect or photograph samples that include several leaves and buds, then go to the Internet or other ID books to make the identification. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial- NoDerivs 3.0 United States License. A lightweight book perfect for foraging trips to the coast. Make sure to purchase the 2007 edition. Moore writes with his characteristic dry humor but is completely thorough, discussing identification, range, medicinal use, preparation, and contraindications for each herb. With the help of a leaf sample you can very accurately ID most trees that grow in the NE. Wildflowers and Plant Communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont by Timothy Spira. Bark alone simply does not give enough info to reliably identify most unknown deciduous trees in winter. A handy pocket guide meant to be used while plants are in flower. -. They include the important commercial tree species of Alabama, plus some flora that are quite limited in their range and use. Small enough to take into the field; recommended for more experienced botanists and foragers. She has been in a steady relationship with the Chestnut School since 2010—as an intern and manager at the Chestnut Herb Nursery; as a plant-smitten student “back in the day” when the school’s programs were taught in the field; and later as a part the school’s woman-powered professional team. Speaks to the heart and soul of wild food and herbal medicine. The shape of a leaf can also give clues when identifying broadleaf tree species. A Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of the Southern Appalachians by Robert E. Swanson. The New Wildcrafted Cuisine by Pascal Baudar. Each plant description is accompanied by color photos and information on habitat, bloom season, and viewing locations. An easy-to-read guide to the edible plants of Florida, including their uses, basic identification traits, drawings, photographs, and recipes. Maple and her tree grow and are the best of friends, sharing the joys of the changing seasons and challenges of human emotion. Peter Owen Ltd. (14th Edition, 2008) 80pp. In coniferous forests, most species are between 50 and 100 ft. (15 – 30 m) tall. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide by Gil Nelson. Does this book taste as good as it looks? And now included is a key to tree families that will help with field identification. Mojave Desert Wildflowers by Jon Mark Stewart. The book also features color-coded sections to allow for quick reference. The pine is identified by needles that are 3” to 6” (8 – 15 cm) long and brown ovoid cones measuring 3” to 6” (8 – 15 cm). Includes line drawings and a selection of color plates. Available here, Woodland management: a practical guide.  Christopher Starr. Includes harvesting and preparation suggestions. This is a hefty hardcover tome that covers both native and naturalized vascular plants throughout California. His beautifully photographed book includes trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. -. The best place to study trees, of course, is in the woods where the characters (bark, twigs, buds, leaves, and fruit) are most easily observed. More applicable to the eastern portion of the Midwest. Sometimes recent tree trimming work can make it more difficult to use other identifiers, which further underscores the usefulness of the leaf. One hundred native trees are described in this manual. The Chestnut School’s content is for educational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice or a substitute for medical treatment. The book features line drawings and a centerfold of color photographs and is light enough to easily carry into the field. Available here, Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-deficit Disorder. Weeds of the South by Charles Bryson and Michael DeFelice. Includes nearly one thousand species of wildflowers, trees, shrubs, grasses, rushes, and sedges.